The Indo-Mongolian Society of New York

Mongolian History-Online Resources

 

 

Compiled by the Indo-Mongolian Society of New York in 2004 www.MongolianCulture.com

 

                       Contents                  

 

History of the Mongols, Genghis Khan � Chinggis Khan,

Mongol Military Campaigns, Yuan Dynasty � Mongol China,

 Ilkhanid Dynasty � Mongol Iran,

Ulus Chaghatay Dynasty � Mongol Central Asia,

Golden Horde Dynasty � Mongol Russia,

 Mongol Invasions of Japan, Mongols in South East Asia,

Post-Empire and Modern Mongolia,

Mongolian Women in History,

Nomadic CivilizationPastoral Nomadism & Inner Asian History,

Religious History of the Mongols, Art of the Mongol Empire,

Other Mongolian History Images, Other Articles About Mongolian History,

Mongol Empire Maps, Mongolian History Timelines,

Central Asian Tribal Groups History, Siberian Tribal Groups, The Manchus,

The Silk Road, Silk Road Art, Silk Road Frescoes of Dunhuang,

Historical Maps, Period Photos: Mongol, Tibetan, Siberian and Central Asian Subjects,

Indian Historical Cultural Influence in Central Asia, Gandaharan, Bactrian,Sogdian,Parthian and Sarmation Art

 

History of the Mongols

Origins of the Mongols

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/4.htm

Ancestry of the Mongols

http://www.coldsiberia.org/ancestry.htm

The Secret History of the Mongols Description

http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/eage1010/m2_mainframe1_8g.htm

The Rise of the Mongol Empire

http://ron.heavengames.com/gameinfo/nations/mongol/mongol.shtml

Defining Territories and Empire: from Mongol Ulus to Russian Siberia, 1200 - 1800

http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/sympo/Proceed97/Kotkin1.html

How did the Mongols Link East and West? (Selections from All the Khan's Horses)

http://www.globaled.org/nyworld/materials/mongol/Howdid2.html

The Mongol Khans                 

http://www.friesian.com/mongol.htm

History of the Mongol Empire � List of Rulers

http://mongolempire.4t.com/r_rulers.htm

The �Pax Mongolica�

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/paxmongolica.shtml

Mongols in World History

http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/mongols/

Mongol History

http://danielroy.tripod.com/cgi-bin/alternate/mongolia/history.html

History of the Mongol Empire

http://mongolempire.4t.com/h3_risegenghis.htm

Mongolia FAQ

http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~corff/mfaq-3.html

Virtual Mongol History

http://www.kiku.com/electric_samurai/virtual_mongol/history.html

Reign of Kuyuk (Guyuk) Khan

http://reference.allrefer.com/country-guide-study/mongolia/mongolia25.html

John of Plano Carpini the Pope�s Envoy Travels to the Court of G�y�k Khan

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/carrub.shtml

Medieval European Views of the Mongols (Excerpts -Storm From the East)

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/readings/marshall.html

 Persian Views of the Mongols and Europeans

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst372/readings/morgan1.html

European and Mongol Relations in the 13th Century (Christian Europe and Mongol Asia)

http://www.luc.edu/publications/medieval/vol2/2ch13.html

Europe and the Vatican�s Perspectives on the Mongol Empire Expansion

http://www.mille.org/publications/summer98/fschmieder.pdf

In the Footsteps of Marco Polo Exhibition Resources (Virtual Journey)

http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/Marco/get.html

Did Marco Polo Go to China? A Critical Appraisal by Prof. I. De Rachewiltz

http://rspas.anu.edu.au/eah/Marcopolo.html

Grigor of Akner�s Account of the Mongols in Armenia and Georgia

http://rbedrosian.com/ga1.htm

Armenian Historical Accounts of the Mongol Empire

http://rbedrosian.com/dsources.htm

Rabban Sauma, A Nestorian Christian Envoy to the Court of Khubilai Khan

http://www.uoregon.edu/~sshoemak/324/texts/monks_of_kubla_khan.htm

The �Barbarian Invaders�

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/barbarian.shtml

A 13th Century Description of the �Tatars� (Mongols)

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/tartars.html

Great Wall of China 2

http://www.jadedragon.com/archives/arts/greatwal.html

Photos of Great Wall

http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/images/gtwall-2.gif

Description of the �Tugh�, Mongol Imperial Yak Tail Standard by Babur

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/babur/babur1.html#stand

Legacy of the Mongols

http://members.tripod.com/~whitebard/ca7.htm

  back to top

Genghis Khan Chinggis Khan

On Chinggis Khaan

http://userpage.fu-berlin.de/~corff/im/Landeskunde/CK.html

The Era of Chinggis Khan, 1206 - 1227

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/10.htm

Genghis Khan, Father of Mongolian Democracy

http://www.mongolianculture.com/PaulaL-Sabloff.htm

The Land of Genghis Khan (National Geographic)

http://www.nationalgeographic.com/genghis/index.html

Genghis Khan, the Mongols and Asia

http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h11mon.htm

Changing Perceptions of Genghis Khan in Mongolia

http://hcs.harvard.edu/~hapr/winter00_millenium/Genghis.html

The Treasure of Genghis Khan

http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2002-09/treasures.html

Legacy of Genghis Khan Exhibition Resources, MET Museum, New York

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/khan1/hd_khan1.htm

  back to top

Mongol Military Campaigns

Mongol Conquest of China 1

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/11.htm

Mongol Conquest of Khwarizm

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/12.htm

Last Campaign of Genghis Khan

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/13.htm

Subedai�s Campaigns in Europe

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/15.htm

The Battle of Mohi (Muhi) in Hungary, 1241

http://home-4.worldonline.nl/~t543201/web-mongol/mongol-mohi.htm

Mongol Invasion of Poland, Battle of Liegnitz, 1241

http://www.juniorgeneral.org/liegnitz/liegnitz.html

Research into Mongol Art of War

http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/ARTICLES/onon.htm

Description of Mongol Warfare from Friar John of Plano Carpini

http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/SOURCES/carpini.htm

Mamluks and Mongol: The Mamluk-Ilkhanid War, 1260-1281

http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/SOURCES/carpini.htm

Mongols Meet Their Match: The Battle of Ain-Jalut

http://www.strategypage.com/articles/default.asp?target=mongol.htm

Mongol Armies

http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/~kuijt/dba154/dba154.html

Mongol Army, Khans, Commanders, Methods and Campaigns

http://home-4.worldonline.nl/~t543201/web-mongol/mongol-enter-index.htm

The Mongol War Machine

http://www.globaled.org/nyworld/materials/mongol/Howdid3.html

Mongolian Archery Technique

http://www.atarn.org/mongolian/mngtchnq.htm

Mongolian and Tibetan Archery

http://www.atarn.org/letters/ltr_mar01.htm

  back to top

Yuan Dynasty � Mongol China � 1279 - 1368

Khubilai Khan and the Yuan Dynasty

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/18.htm

Khubilai Khan, 1215 � 1294

http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/oldwrld/armies/kublai.html

Khubilai Khan: The Last Great Ruler?

http://biphome.spray.se/coif/history/kublai/kublen07.html

Khubilai Khan and His Advisors

http://biphome.spray.se/coif/history/kublai/kublen05.html

Yuan Dynasty

http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/china/later_imperial_china/yuan.html

Yuan Dynastic Statutes of Government

http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/eage1010/m2_mainframe1_8h.htm

Yuan Dynasty Social Economy

http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/yuan/social-economy.htm

Yuan Dynasty Paper Money Photograph

http://www.zeno.ru/showphoto.php?photo=85

Khubilai Khan in Battle, 1287 (Observations of Marco Polo)

http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/khan.htm

Phaga-pa Alphabet

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/phagspa.htm

Mongol Administrative Seal from the Ministry of Rites in Phags-pa Script, Yuan Dynasty, 1287

http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/e-grass09/selections5.htm

The Monks of Khubilai Khan, Life & Travels of Rabban Sauma

http://www.aina.org/books/mokk/mokk.htm

�Age of the Great Khans: Pluralism in Chinese Art & Culture Under the Mongols�

http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/eage1010/m1_mainframe1_1.htm

Mongol Imperial Portraiture in the Yuan Dynasty

http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/eage1010/m2_mainframe1_2.htm

Anige, Himalayan Artist in the Court of Khubilai Khan

http://www.msu.edu/course/ha/121/jinganige.htm

Yuan Dynasty Zaju (Dramatic Performance Art Form)

http://www.chinavoc.com/magicn/yzaj.asp

Chinese Theatre During the Yuan Dynasty

http://www.san.beck.org/AC2-China.html#2

Yuan Dynasty Art (1279-1368)

http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/timelines/china/yuan.html

Yuan Dynasty Art 1279-1368, Summary and Images

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/yuan/hd_yuan.htm

Yuan Dynasty Artists and their Artworks

http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/eage1010/m3_mainframe1_1.htm

Yuan Dynasty Landscape Paintings

http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/painting/tptgyula.htm

Chao Meng-fu, Yuan Dynasty Artist

http://www.chineseartnet.com/Nigensha/p12.htm

Yuan Dynasty Literature

http://www.angelfire.com/journal2/wen/yuan.html

 

  back to top

Ilkhanid Dynasty � Mongol Iran � 1265 - 1335

Hulegu Khan Founder of the Ilkhanid Dynasty

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=42370

The Il-Khanate

http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/ilkhanate.html

Hulegu Khan�s Conquests Timeline

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst373/chronology/mongolsmongols.html

Rashid ad-Din

http://www.spongobongo.com/her9932.htm

An Account of Gregory Bar Hebraeus Abu al-Faraj and his Relations with the Mongols of Persia

http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol2No2/HV2N2GLane.html

Simeon of Qal�a Rumaita�s, a Priest-Physician at the Ilkhan Court

http://syrcom.cua.edu/Hugoye/Vol4No1/HV4N1Takahashi.html

Hulegu Khan�s Coinage

http://mehmeteti.150m.com/ilkhanids/hulagu.htm

Ilkhanid Mongol Tent Image

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/khan9/hd_khan9.htm

The Arts of the Ilkhanid Period

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/ilkh/hd_ilkh.htm

Art of the Book in the Ilkhanid Period

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/khan2/hd_khan2.htm

Developments of Arts in Iran Under the Mongols

http://www.artnet.com/magazine/features/stern/stern1-13-03.asp

New Visual Language of Iran Created by the Mongols

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/khan4/hd_khan4.htm

Images and Description of the Mongol Illustrated History,

The Jami al -Tavarikh, (Compendium of Chronicles by Rashid al-Din)

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/khan8/hd_khan8.htm

Long Lasting Aesthetic Influence of the Mongols on Persian Art

http://www.lacma.org/islamic_art/lma.htm

Ilkhanid Buildings Style Image Archive

http://archnet.org/library/sites/sites.tcl?style=Il-Khanid

Tomb of Uljeytu in Sultaniya. Images of Interior & Exterior

http://archnet.org/library/images/thumbnails.tcl?location_id=3782

Illustration Sections of the Court of Ghazan Khan

http://members.tripod.com/Mongolian_Page/costumes/costume.html

 

  back to top

Ulus Chaghatay - Mongol Central Asia - 1227 - 1363

Jagatai Khan (Chaghatay)

http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/J/Jagatai.asp

The Chaghataid Khanate

http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/chagatai.html

Ibn Batuta and Ulus Chaghatay

http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch618/Ibn_Battuta/Battuta_Six.html

Chaghatay Khanate Period Ruins Images

http://www.belfun.com/Amaury/turfan_jiaohe.htm

Tomb of Buyan Quli Khan in Bukhara, c. 1905 - 1915, 24th Ruler of the Ulus Chaghatay, 1348 - 1358 http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/prok/02300/02324v.jpg

Chaghatay Ulus Administrative Order in Phags-pa Script with Chaghatay Mark

http://www.let.osaka-u.ac.jp/toyosi/sial/13-matsui.html

Chaghatayid Coins

http://users.rcn.com/j-roberts/cha.htm

Jani Beg II Coinage

http://horde.charm.ru/janibekII.shtml

Ulus Chaghatay, Mongol or not?

http://www.turko-tatar.com/uli/pubs/S1995E.pdf

 

  back to top

Golden Horde � Mongol Russia � 1240 � 1480

 

Golden Horde, from Encyclopedia

http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Golden-Horde

Analysis of the name �Golden Horde�

http://hudce7.harvard.edu/~ostrowski/mm/golden2.pdf

Ulus of Jochi (Golden Horde), 1240 �1560�s

http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/sympo/Proceed97/Kotkin2.html

Batu Khan, Conqueror of Russia, 1206-1255

http://hudce7.harvard.edu/~ostrowski/mm/batu.pdf

Berke Khan, Brother of Batu Khan

http://hudce7.harvard.edu/~ostrowski/mm/berke.pdf

Golden Horde Summary from Wikpedia Encyclopedia

http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Horde

Mongol Invasion of Russia from Wikpedia Encyclopedia

http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_invasion_of_Russia

Mongol Conquest and Rule of Russia

http://www.users.bigpond.com/billmastermind/moments25.htm

 The Golden Horde, Expansion of Mongol Rule Over Russia

http://reference.allrefer.com/country-guide-study/mongolia/mongolia30.html

Mongol Conquest of Bulgars

http://members.tripod.com/~Groznijat/fadlan/rorlich3.html

�Yarlighs� � Imperial Mongol Regulatory Decrees Sent to Russian Princes

http://hudce7.harvard.edu/~ostrowski/mm/iarlyk.pdf

Battle of Kulikovo, 1380, Mamai Attempts to Oust Tokhtamish Khan

http://hudce7.harvard.edu/~ostrowski/mm/kulikovo.pdf

History of Galicia & Volhynia; Relations of Leo of Galicia with Khan Telebuga of the Golden Horde

http://www.personal.ceu.hu/students/97/Roman_Zakharii/gal.htm

Golden Horde (Shaybanid), Brief History and Coinage

http://users.rcn.com/j-roberts/gol.htm

Golden Horde; Archeological Museum Relics

http://www.kcn.ru/tat_en/university/archeol/zolorda.htm

Golden Horde Art

http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_5_13.html

Golden Horde Relic Metropolitan Museum

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/waa/ho_38.96.htm

Golden Horde Coinage

http://horde.charm.ru/

Golden Horde and Tatar Scholarly Articles

http://www.turko-tatar.com/uli/ulipubs.htm

The Mongols and Russia

http://www.geographia.com/russia/rushis03.htm

Rambaud on the Mongol Yoke & the Influence of the Tatars 0n Russian Development

http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/RamTat.html

Mongols in Armenia

http://www.virtualarmenia.am/lori/loriberd/loremedievalcity/mijnadaryanlorekaghak1.htm

Mongol Invasion of Russia

http://www.russiansabroad.com/russian_history_21.html

ssian View of Mongol Period

http://www.dce.harvard.edu/pubs/alum/1998/16.html

Ethnic Diversity Among the Early Doukhbors

http://www.doukhobor.org/Ethnic.htm

  back to top

Mongol Invasions of Japan

Mongol Invasions of Japan Animated Map

http://www.emory.edu/COLLEGE/CULPEPER/RAVINA/PROJECT/Maps/Mongols/Mongolinvasion3.html

Japan History Mongol Invasions

http://www.workmall.com/wfb2001/japan/japan_history_mongol_invasions.html

Khubilai Khan�s Lost Fleet (Found again)

http://www.abc.se/~m10354/mar/kublai.htm

Mongol Invasions of Japan

http://www.deremilitari.org/RESOURCES/PDFs/CONLAN.PDF

Assessment of the Impact of the Mongol Invasions of Japan

http://www.aasianst.org/absts/2000abst/Japan/J-167.htm

Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions Introduction

http://academic.bowdoin.edu/mongol_scrolls/introduction.shtml

Scrolls of the Mongol Invasion Illustration

http://academic.bowdoin.edu/mongol_scrolls/newdata/13_scene16.html

  back to top

Mongols in Southeast & Northeast Asia

Chronological Timeline of China, Korea and Japan

http://www.sba.muohio.edu/mis399/Student/Chronological%20View%20of%20Asia%20History.htm

Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Tibet, & Mongolia

http://www.friesian.com/perigoku.htm

Mongol Campaigns in Vietnam

http://countrystudies.us/vietnam/9.htm

Vietnamese Commander Tran Hung Dao and his War with the Mongols

http://www.vietmedia.com/history/?L=tranhungdao.html

Mongols in Java

http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Majapahit

  back to top

Post-Empire and Modern Mongolia

Decline of the Mongol Empire

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/22.htm

Mongols, Jurchens, and Manchus

http://assets.cambridge.org/0521243343/sample/0521243343WS.pdf

Mongolia in Transition 1368-1911

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/23.htm

Dayan Khan

http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dayan_Khan

Manchu Emperor Kangshi and the Mongol Khans in the 1600�s

http://www.nalanda.nitc.ac.in/resources/english/etext-project/history/china1/chapter12.html

Modern Mongolia 1911-1984

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/26.htm

Damdiny Sukhbataar, Mongolian Revolutionary Hero

http://www.pjsymes.com.au/articles/suhbaatar.htm

Life of Zanabazar, First Bogdo Gegen of Mongolia

http://www.zanabazar.mn/Life/zanabazar.9.html

Mongolia�s Socialist Construction Under Tsedenbal, 1952- 84

http://www.workmall.com/wfb2001/mongolia/mongolia_history_socialist_construction_under_tsedenbal_1952_84.html

Brief Summary of Khalkin-Gol War of 1939

http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/mil/html/ml_027100_khalkingolba.htm

  back to top

 Mongolian Women in History

Portrait of Khubilai Khan�s Consort Chabi

http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/eage1010/m2_1pic_2.htm

Female Hero: Sorghaghtani Beki

http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/heroine8.html

Heroines: Mongolian Women

http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/mongolian8.html

Women of the Mongol Court

http://www.woodrow.org/teachers/world-history/teaching/mongol/women.html

Names of Mongol Woman Royalty

http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/jessica-bonner/mongolwomen.html

 

  back to top

Nomadic Civilization, Inner Asian History and Pastoral Nomadism

 

Nomads and Military History

http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/mil/html/mh_037600_nomads.htm

Hun, Pazyryk, Scythian, Bactrian, Vani, Merv, Central Asian History Brief

http://www.drummingnet.com/alekseev/ChapterVIII.html

History of Inner Asia

http://assets.cambridge.org/0521651697/sample/0521651697WSC00.pdf

Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Expansion Outline

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072424354/student_view0/chapter18/table_of_contents.html

Nomadic Empires & Eurasian Integration Outline

http://poneill.cocc.edu/Classes/HST105/HST105Syllabus/HST105Chapter+18/default.aspx

Nomads: The Asiatic Background

http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Nomads.html

Pope Leo�s Historic Meeting with Attila the Hun, 452 A.D.

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/attila2.html

Herodotus on the Scythian Nomads, Chapter 4 Herodotus the Histories

http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/h/h4m/chapter4.html

Herodotus� Conception of Foreign Languages

http://www.dur.ac.uk/Classics/histos/1998/harrison.html

Description of Transoxania in the Memoirs of Babur, First Mughal Emperor

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/babur/babur1.html

Crisis of Cultural Identity in Mongolian Nomadic Civilization

http://ignca.nic.in/ls_03011.htm

Nomads At the Crossroads

http://www.newint.org/issue266/keynote.htm

Nomadism and Pastoralism Worldwide, History and Analysis

http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/005/Y2647E/y2647e02.htm

Patterns of Subsistence: Pastoralism

http://anthro.palomar.edu/subsistence/sub_3.htm

 Nomads - The Facts

http://www.newint.org/issue266/facts.htm

Nomads and Their Domesticated Animals

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/culture/animals/animals.html

Tibetan Nomad Animal Husbandry and Grazing Management Practices

http://uvalde.tamu.edu/rangel/feb99/miller.pdf

Tibetan Nomads Pastoral Production

http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/essays/Fao04.htm

Bactrian Camel Cart Photo

http://camelphotos.com/GraphicsP7/mongolia.jpg

Interactions Between the Nomadic Cultures of Central Asia & China in the Middle Ages

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/szynkiewicz.shtml

Climate Oscillations and Nomad Migrations

 http://www.ihdp.uni-bonn.de/html/publications/update/update00_01/IHDPUpdate00_01_research.htm

Nomadic Eurasians, Archeological Analysis Articles

http://www.csen.org/BAR%20Book/02%20Part%201%20Theory.pdf

Traditional Dwellings of the Nomads: Gers/Yurts

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/culture/dwellings/dwellings.html

Modern Mongolian Ger

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/mongolia/mn02_04a.jpg

Central Asian Nomad Yurts/Gers (Kibitki)

http://www.chebucto.ns.ca/Culture/Shifting_Boundaries/kibitki.html

The Mongolian Felt Tent

http://www.skidgel.com/work/mft/

Mongolian Nomads Method for Making Felt

http://members.tripod.com/Mongolian_Page/Felting/felting.html

The Textiles of Nomadic and Settled Peoples of Central Asia

http://www.phm.gov.au/hsc/textiles/textiles.htm

Nomads People�s Traditional Food Sources

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/culture/food/food.html

The Nomads, Man, Animal, Nature

http://ignca.nic.in/ps_01008.htm

An Economic Structure of the Xiongnu Nomads (Hsuingnu) Society

http://iimk.nw.ru/eng/themes/xiongnu/economics.htm

DNA & the Peopling of Siberia

http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/html/peopling_siberia.html

The Dual Origin and Siberian Affinities of Native American Y Chromosomes

http://hpgl.stanford.edu/publications/AJHG_2002_v70_p192-206.pdf

Volkswanderung

http://www.gnxp.com/MT2/archives/000245.html

Samoyedic Peoples of the European Tundra

http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ea210/samoyed.htm

Prehistoric Art: Early Nomads of the Altaic region

http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_2_7.html

Nomadic Art of the Eastern Eurasian Steppes

http://www.metmuseum.org/special/Golden%20Deer/golden_deer_images.htm

Exhibition: Nomadic Waves & Cultural Exchange on the Inner Mongolian Steppe

http://www.123soho.com/artgroup/national_palace_museum/1000/np_4ex7.htm

�Animal Style� and the Image of the Horse and Rider

http://www.transoxiana.com.ar/Eran/Articles/rubinson_abs.html

Rock Art in Central Asia, Mongolia and Siberia

http://rupestre.net/tracce/russib.html

Nomadic Art: The Scythians

http://studentorgs.utexas.edu/husa/origins/szkitahist/szkitaart.html

 

 

  back to top

Religious History of the Mongols

Shamanic Traditions of Mongols

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/culture/religion/religion2.html

Tibetan Buddhism in Mongolia

http://www.innermongolia.org/english/tibetan_buddhism.htm

The Assyrian Church in the Mongolian Empire

http://www.jaas.org/edocs/v13n2/missick.pdf

Mongolian Shamanism

http://www.shamana.co.uk/mongolian_shamanism/

Shamanism in Mongolia and Tibet

http://www.iras.ucalgary.ca/~volk/sylvia/Magic.htm

Religion in Mongolia

http://www.mongoluls.net/shashin/monreli.htm

Religion and Rule in Early Modern Mongolia Abstracts

http://www.aasianst.org/absts/1998abst/china/c168.htm

Buddhism in Mongolia After 1990

http://www.globalbuddhism.org/4/kollmar-paulenz03.htm

  back to top

Art of the Mongol Empire

The New Visual Language Created by the Mongols

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/khan4/hd_khan4.htm

Legacy of Genghis Khan exhibition

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/khan1/hd_khan1.htm

Mongol and Central Asian Art

http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/millwarj/centralasiaimages.htm#3

Mongol Empire Art and Architecture

http://www.unesco.org/culture/asia/html_eng/chapitre4216/chapitre12.htm

Yuan Dynasty Art (1279-1368)

http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/timelines/china/yuan.html

When Silk was Gold, Yuan Dynasty and Mongol Central Asia Textiles

http://antiquesandthearts.com/archive/silk.htm

Mongol Archer, Yuan Dynasty

http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/core9/phalsall/images/mongarch.jpg

Mounted Mongol Archer by Yuan Dynasty Artist Liu Kuan-tao

http://home.kimo.com.tw/yu-kang/stamp/d03.htm

�River in Autumn�, Yuan Dynasty painting

http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/core9/phalsall/images/river1.gif

�Dwelling in the Fuqun Mountains�, Huang Gongwang, Yuan Dynasty

http://vandyck.anu.edu.au/work/teach/context/faculty-web.at.nwu.edu/art-history/fraser/b40/F1041/F-1041-063.JPEG

�Zhong Kui Travelling� by Gong Kai, Yuan Dynasty (In 3 Sections)

http://asianstudies.homestead.com/gongkai3.html

http://asianstudies.homestead.com/gongkai2.html

http://asianstudies.homestead.com/gongkai1.html

Mongol Saddle Arch in Gold, 13th Century, Golden Horde Dynasty

http://www.artnet.com/magazine/features/stern/stern1-13-3.asp

Golden Horde Dynasty Tympanum, 14th � 15th Century

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/waa/ho_38.96.htm

Golden Horde, Belt Fitment of Gold, 13th � 14th Century

http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/html_En/03/hm3_5_13a.html

Yuan Dynasty Mandala with Mongol Rulers Portraits

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/eac/hob_1992.54.htm

Mongol Rider with Administrator, Yuan Dynasty Painting

http://www.artnet.com/magazine/features/stern/stern1-13-1.asp

Yuan Dynasty Art in the Tokyo National Museum

http://www.tnm.jp/scripts/col/MON1.en.idc?Q=144270_______

Mongol Ruler and Queen Enthroned, Ilkhanid Dynasty

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures2/ul43.jpg

Ascension of Ogedei Khan from Rashid-ad Din�s Manuscript, Mongol Iran

http://mongolempire.4t.com/cgi-bin/i/pic_gallery/g_ogedeiasc.jpg

Ogedei Khan Portrait, National Palace Museum, Yuan Dynasty

http://mongolempire.4t.com/cgi-bin/i/pic_gallery/g_ogedeiport.jpg

Illustration of Genghis Khan Addressing Citizens of Bukhara

http://www.sbceo.k12.ca.us./~vms/carlton/genghis20.jpg

Mughal Illustration of Genghis Khan Dividing His Empire

http://www.indianminiaturepainting.com/product/ME80/

Alanquva and Her Three Sons, from the Chingiznama of Rashid ad-Din, 1596, Mughal Dynasty

http://www.superluminal.com/cookbook/gallery_chingiznama.html

The Mongol Shahnama with Illustrations, Ilkhanid Dynasty

http://studentwebs.coloradocollege.edu/~A_KLEIN/shahnama/

Theme of Enthronement in Shahnama, Ilkhanid Dynasty

http://studentwebs.coloradocollege.edu/~A_KLEIN/shahnama/enthronmenthome.html

Theme of Mourning in Shahnama, Ilkhanid Dynasty

http://studentwebs.coloradocollege.edu/~A_KLEIN/shahnama/deathhome.html

Black & White Illustration of Genghis Khan�s Tents, Ilkhanid Dynasty

http://www.currentmiddleages.org/tents/yurt1pic.htm

  back to top

Other Mongolian History Images

Mount Burkhan Khaldun, Which Gave Shelter to Genghis Khan

http://www.doncroner.com/Mongolia/Khentii/Khentii-Pages/Image14.html

The Onon River Near the Birthplace of Genghis Khan

http://www.doncroner.com/Mongolia/Khentii/Khentii-Pages/Image12.html

View of the Upper Kherlen Valley, Mongolia

http://www.doncroner.com/Mongolia/Khentii/Khentii-Pages/Image2.html

Erdene Uul, Near Where Genghis Khan Evaded the Merkits

http://www.doncroner.com/Mongolia/Khentii/Khentii-Pages/Image3.html

Monument to the Secret History of the Mongols in Mongolia

http://www.chenresig.com/Mongolia/Secret/Pages/Image9.html

Mountain called Cakir Maud in Secret History of the Mongols.

 In the Background is Saar Keer Where Final Battle with Naiman Took Place

http://www.chenresig.com/Mongolia/Secret/Pages/Image11.html

Ruins of Khitan City, Mongolia

http://www.chenresig.com/Mongolia/Secret/Pages/Image6.html

Early Example of Turkic Writing, Mongolia

http://www.chenresig.com/Mongolia/Secret/Pages/Image2.html

Tue Che�h Monument, Ovorkhangai, Mongolia

http://www.chenresig.com/Mongolia/Secret/Pages/Image1.html

Modern Illustration of Mongol Battling Teutonic Knights at Leignitz

http://mongolempire.4t.com/cgi-bin/i/pic_gallery/g_liegnitz.jpg

Modern Illustration of Mongol Armies On the March

http://www.sbceo.k12.ca.us./~vms/carlton/genghis9.jpg

Mongol and Central Asian Relics

http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/millwarj/centralasiaimages.htm#8.

Ancient Deer Stones, Western Mongolia

http://www.uoregon.edu/~arthist/jacobson/170M.htm

Ancient Stone Figure, Western Mongolia

http://www.uoregon.edu/~arthist/jacobson/653A.htm

Ancient Armour and Helmets Yuan Dynasty

http://chinese-armour.freewebspace.com/photo.html

Monument to Sukhbataar, UlanBaatar, Mongolia

http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/mongolia/mn01_06b.jpg

  back to top

Other Articles About Mongolian History

The Soyombo, Mongolian National Symbol of Independence

http://www.mongoluls.net/shashin/soyombo.htm

Mongolian Language Documents: Traditional Styles and Scripts

 http://www.y-adagio.com/public/committees/docsii/doc_00-49/symp_ulaan/mong_ppr.pdf

Comparative Anecdotology and the Secret History of the Mongols

 http://www.luc.edu/publications/medieval/vol2/2ch13.html

Fall of the Ming Dynasty & the Rise of the Manchu�s Qing Dynasty

http://www.oslo2000.uio.no/program/papers/m1b/m1b-dicosmo.pdf

Historical References regarding �Khan/King� as �Son of Heaven� in Central Asia

http://www.asiaresearchassociates.com/Khan%20as%20Son%20of%20Heaven%20in%20Central%20Asia.htm

How Do You Say �Minzu� in Mongolian? (Articles on Mongolian and Chinese Views of Nationality)

http://www.indiana.edu/~easc/resources/working_paper/noframe_5b.htm

Notes on the Mongols

http://www.zum.de/whkmla/sat/notes/notesXXXIIImong.html

Mongolian Flags History     

http://www.fotw.net/flags/mn.html

Bogdo Khan, Rebel Monk      

 http://www.mongoliatoday.com/issue/6/bogd_khaan.html

Mongols, Buddhism and Modernity

http://csf.colorado.edu/bcas/duara/duara2.htm

Introduction to the Anthropological Study in Mongolia

http://www.indiana.edu/~mongsoc/mong/anthro.htm

Przewalski Horse: Ancient Mongolian Horse Rescued from the Brink of Extinction

http://www.gluckman.com/MongoHorse.html

Mongolian Music

http://www.soundtransformations.btinternet.co.uk/Mongolianvocalmuscipage.htm

Mongolian history reading list

http://www3.uakron.edu/worldciv/russ/mongbib.html

Names from the Secret History of Mongolia

http://www.laohats.com/Names%20from%20The%20Secret%20History%20of%20the%20Mongols.htm

Mongol Creation Stories

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-EPT/stuart1.htm

Documentation & Construction of Period Mongol Names

http://www.s-gabriel.org/names/baras-aghur/mongolian.html

Poem About the Fall of the Khwarazim Shah�s Empire

http://www.sirguillaume.com/Downloads/Fall_of_Khwarazm_Poem.pdf

Chinggis Khan�s Name Encrypted in a Tangut Song, 14th Century

http://idp.bl.uk/chapters/publications/newsletter_archive/news19/idpnews19.html

National Geographic/ Mongolian crossing

http://magma.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0310/feature5/

Sacred Mongolian Environmental Texts

http://www.arcworld.org/projects.asp?projectID=101

Definition of �Horde�

http://www.bartleby.com/61/71/H0277100.html

Of Mongol �Hordes�, the First �Iron Curtain�, Lost Opportunities, Inflation and Gutenberg�s Real Motives

http://www.phocas.de/The_Mongols/the_mongols.html

Photos of Karakorum Archeological Excavations

http://www.marcsteinmetz.com/pages/karakorum/ekarakorum_minis.html

Mongolia Climate

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/34.htm

Bugut Inscription and Early Turkic Habitation in Mongolia

http://www.transoxiana.com.ar/Eran/Articles/alyilmaz.html

Glossary of Mongol Terms

http://www.accd.edu/sac/history/keller/Mongols/actres5.html

Yeh-lu Chu�tsai, Advisor to Genghis Khan

http://www.coldsiberia.org/yehluchu.htm

Influence of Liao, Jin & Yuan Dynasties on Chinese Attire, 916 �1368 A.D.

http://www.library.utoronto.ca/east/students03/tai_amy/Liao_Jin_Yuan.htm

Eunuchs and Sinicization in the Non-Han Conquest Dynasties of China

http://mcel.pacificu.edu/aspac/papers/scholars/Jay/jay.htm

Is the Shah-Nameh- Book of Kings- Mongol Royal History Actually the Abu�Said-Nameh?

http://www.ebookpars.com/ebooks/AbsNam99.pdf

Rashid ad-Din�s Letters: Genuine History or Forgery?

http://www.soudavar.com/Letters-Modified3.PDF

Genetic Legacy of the Mongols

http://egweb.bcgsc.ca/journal_club/2003_2004/pdfs/short_report_031006_mongol_Y_chrom.pdf

Falconry�s Origin in Mongolia

http://www.agsci.ubc.ca/animalwelfare/2002_classpres/sara/brief_history_of_falconry.html

Pozdneyev�s Description of Urga (Da Khuree) in 1892, 1893

http://www.iras.ucalgary.ca/~volk/sylvia/Pozdneyev.htm

Millennium: CNN World History Video Clips

http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/millennium/frameset.13.exclude.html

The 1928 Gobi Expedition

http://www.beloit.edu/~museum/logan/paleoexhibit/gobi.htm

The Initial Upper Paleolithic in Northeast Asia

http://paleo.sscnet.ucla.edu/BrantCA2001.pdf

  back to top

Mongol Empire Maps

Mongol Empire Map 1

http://mongolempire.4t.com/maps/mapmongol.htm

Mongol Empire Map 2

http://www.lacma.org/khan/map.htm

Mongol Invasions Map 1223- 1240

http://www.mit.edu/afs/athena/course/21/21h.580/www/timesatlas/p44_3.jpg

Genghis Khan Invasion route Maps

http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/Religion402/Lecture%20Six/MongolsGhengis1227.htm

Mongol Empire Map with Marco Polo Route

http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/maptext_n2/mongol1.html

Mongol Empire before 1259 Map

http://www.mit.edu/afs/athena/course/21/21h.580/www/timesatlas/p46_1.jpg

Mongol Empire 1259 Map, (area after breakup)

http://www.mit.edu/afs/athena/course/21/21h.580/www/timesatlas/p46_3.jpg

Map of Europe 1223 on the eve of Mongol Invasions

http://www.ukans.edu/kansas/medieval/108/graphics/1223.gif

Map of Europe in 1270 after Mongol Invasions

http://www.ukans.edu/kansas/medieval/108/graphics/1270.gif

Map of Chaghatay Khanate

http://www.taklamakan.org/history/jagatai.gif

Mongol Empire Map 1294 now including Russia

http://www.libarts.ucok.edu/history/faculty/plaks/MAPS/mongol_russia.html

Mongol Empire Map late 13th century

http://www.loyno.edu/~seduffy/MapImages/MongolEmpire-display.jpg

Map of Mongol Expansion in Asia

http://www.kent.k12.md.us/kcps/mt/estack/map.htm

Map of Mongol Areas in Asia and West, end of 13th century

http://faculty.cua.edu/pennington/Religion402/Lecture%20Six/MongolsGhengis1227.htm

Chinese Map of Mongol Empire

http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/images/mongmap.jpg

Mongol Khanates, Black & White Map1

http://www.historyonmaps.com/BWSamples/MongolEmpire.htm

Mongol Khanates, Black & White Map 2

http://coursesa.matrix.msu.edu/~fisher/hst372/readings/maps/Mongols.html

Map of Trade Routes of Mongol Empire

http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/brummettconcise/chapter98/medialib/thumbs/ch12_226.html

Map of medieval trade routes between Europe, West Asia up to India,

c. 1200�s. �Historical Atlas� by William R. Shepherd, 1922.

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/asia_mediaeval_commerce.jpg

Symbolic Mapping: Mandeville�s and Polo�s Representations of the East

http://www.hku.hk/english/courses2000/2045/mappingtheother.htm

  back to top

Timelines of Mongolian History

Mongol Khans and Central Asian Khans Timelines

http://www.hostkingdom.net/mongols.html

Timeline of Mongolian History         

http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/mongols.html

Mongol Dynasties Timelines

http://www.kessler-web.co.uk/History/KingListsFarEast/AsiaMongols.htm

Mongol Period timeline and maps

http://www.bartleby.com/67/374.html

Central Asian History Timeline

http://www.oxuscom.com/cahist1.htm

Central Asia Timeline 1167-1363

http://www.spongobongo.com/time1.htm

Central and North Asia Timeline 1600 � 1800 A.D.

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/09/nc/ht09nc.htm

Wars Timeline, 1200-1299, A Chronology of Conflict

http://www.battlegames.co.uk/html/historyfiles/chrono_AD13th.htm

  back to top

History of Central Asian Tribal Groups

The Xiongnu Culture, 3rd Century BCE

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/xiongnu1.shtml

The Hu Peoples

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/hu/hu.html

The Juan-juan

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/juan_juan/juan_juan.html

The Yue-Chi

http://86.1911encyclopedia.org/Y/YU/YUE_CHI.htm

The Migration of the Yuezhi (Yue-Chi) through Sogdia

http://www.transoxiana.com.ar/Eran/Articles/benjamin.html

The Sakas

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/sakas/essay.html

The Huns

http://www.fernweb.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/mf/huns.htm

The Huns Chronology and Timeline

http://www.kessler-web.co.uk/History/KingListsEurope/BarbarianHuns.htm

The White Huns- Hephthalites

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/heph.shtml

The Scythians

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/scythian.shtml

Nomadic Waves and Cultural Exchange on the Mongolian Steppes

http://www.npm.gov.tw/english/exhbition/e-grass09/intro.htm

The Alans

http://www.kessler-web.co.uk/History/KingListsEurope/BarbarianAlans.htm

The Khitan and Jurchen

http://countrystudies.us/mongolia/9.htm

The Khitan and Liao Dynasties

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/khitans/essay.html

The Liao Dynasty

http://tse.dyndns.org/~sktse/liao.htm

The �Barbarian States�: Liao, Jin, Yuan

http://www.ac.wwu.edu/~kaplan/H370/mp29.pdf

The Khwarezm Shah Empire, 1151 � 1231 A.D.

http://www.allempires.com/empires/khwarezm/khwarezm1.htm

The Jin Dynasty, 1115 � 1234 A.D.

http://tse.dyndns.org/~sktse/dajin.htm

The XiXia Dynasty

http://www.uglychinese.org/xixia.htm

The Tanguts

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/tanguts/essay.html

Mongol Tatars

http://hansaray.narod.ru/ekhanate.html

Ibn al�Athir on the Tatars

http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1220al-Athir-mongols.html

The Tatars

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatars

Ethnogenesis and State Formation in Medieval & Early Modern Eurasia

http://gencturkler2.8m.com/WHO/golden.html

Ethnic Processes Within the Turkic Population of the West Siberian Plain

http://monderusse.revues.org/docannexe/4402tomilov-cmr-2-3-2000.pdf

The Khazars

http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khazars

The Cumans and Kipchaks

http://www.ku.edu/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-2/cam2.html

Central Asia after the Mongols

http://www.history.hacettepe.edu.tr/archive/oimakale.html

The Mauryans and Graeco-Bactrians

http://www.afghanan.net/afghanistan/sites/mauryans.htm

The Parthians

http://www.livius.org/pan-paz/parthia/parthia02.html

Roman Description of the Parthians

http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Parthian.html

The Kushan Empire

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/kushans/kushans.html

The Mauryan Empire

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/mauryans/essay.html

The Sasanians

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/sasanian.shtml

The Sogdians

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/sogdian.shtml

The White Horde

http://family-of-man.com/CatalogEnglish/Europe/Russia/white_horde.html

The Jalayirids

http://www.angelfire.com/tn/halk/jalayr.html

The Qara Qoyunlu

http://family-of-man.com/CatalogEnglish/Asia%20Minor/Anatolia/black_sheep_emirate.html

The Qara Khitai, 810 � 1000 A.D.

http://www.kessler-web.co.uk/History/KingListsFarEast/AsiaQaraKhitai.htm

The Qarluqs

http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=63680

The Crimean Tatars

http://www.iccrimea.org/scholarly/krimtatars.html

The Rise and Fall of the Uighur Empire

http://www.geocities.com/somasushma/uighur.html

The Manchus

http://un.fmprc.gov.cn/eng/5313.html

The Ashtarkhanid Rulers of Bukhara

http://www.angelfire.com/rnb/bashiri/Manghit/Ashtar.html

The Timurids

http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/mongols/timurid.html

The Timurid and Turko-Mongolian Identity

http://www.globaled.org/nyworld/materials/india/thetimurid.html

The Empire of Timur

http://www.accd.edu/sac/history/keller/Mongols/states6.html

The Shaibanids

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/5246/Bukhara.html

The Khanate of Khiva

http://www.geocities.com/Athens/5246/Khiva.html

The Mughals

http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MUGHAL/ORIGIN.HTM

Mughal Dynastic Chart from Akbar-Nama

http://www.clarence.ndirect.co.uk/chaihana/history.htm

The Khalkha Mongols

http://www.mankato.msus.edu/emuseum/cultural/oldworld/asia/khalkamongols.html

The Buryats

http://www.baikal.eastsib.ru/buryatrepublic/

The Chakhar

http://en2.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chakhar

History of Kalmykia

http://kalm.ru/en/hist.html

History of the Oirats

http://www.oiraty.com/en_histori/histori_en1.html

The Tuvans

http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ea210/Tuva.htm

Mongol, Tungusic & Manchu Minority Tribal Groups

http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ea210/manchu.htm

The Cumans

http://www.bartleby.com/65/cu/Cumans.html

The Magyars

http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/EastEurope/Magyars.html

The Khwarezmians

http://www.4reference.net/encyclopedias/wikipedia/Khwarezmia.html

Kazakhstan Unesco history 12th-14th century

http://www.unesco.kz/natcom/turkestan/e04_kz_ca.htm

Kazakh Area Unesco History

http://www.natcom.unesco.kz/turkestan/e06_yasy_city.htm

History of Kazakhstan

http://www.uzbekistantravelandtours.com/kazak/history.html

Origins of Kazakhs and Uzbeks

http://www.ku.edu/carrie/texts/carrie_books/paksoy-5/

The Kirghiz

http://57.1911encyclopedia.org/K/KI/KIRGHIZ.htm

The Hazara

http://www.irn.pdx.edu/~farrg/Hazara.htm

The Turkmen

http://www.turanianhorse.org/turkmen.html

Great Steppe Empires of Asia

http://berclo.net/page97/97en-steppe-empires.html

The Russian Redbook Listing of Endangered Tribes

http://www.eki.ee/books/redbook/introduction.shtml

  back to top

Siberian Tribal Groups

The Evenks

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/evenk.html

The Orochi � A Tangus Manchurian People

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/oroch.html

The Negidal

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/negid.html

The Itelman � Kamchatka � Mongol Peoples

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/itelm.html     `       

The Khanty

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/khant.html

The Mansi

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/mansi.html

The Selkup

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/selku.html

The Udege

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/udege.html

The Nanai

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/nanay.html

The Ulchi

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/ulchy.html

The Nivkh

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/nivkh.html

The Kets

http://www.raipon.org/Web_Database/kety.html

The Koryaks

http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/croads/koryak.html

The Sakhas

http://www.turkiye.net/sota/yakut.html

The Yukagir

http://www.yukoncollege.yk.ca/~agraham/nost202/yukagir_trans.htm

 

The Manchus � Qing Dynasty - 1644 �1911 A.D.

The Manchus

http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/CHING/MANCHU.HTM

Mongolia Under the Manchus

http://www.mongolia.org.hk/english/country_info/country_info-2-07.htm

China and the Manchus

http://www.arthurwendover.com/arthurs/history/8mnch10.html

Decline of the Ming and the Rise of the Manchus

 http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/MING/DECLINE.HTM

Chronology of China Under the Manchus

http://core.ecu.edu/hist/tuckerjo/fe-seventeen.htm

Kanji of China Under the Manchus

http://www.ideogear.com/jukugo/u6e05u56fd                                                                                                                     

Manchu Colonialism? Qing Policies in Mongolia, Tibet, and Xingiang

http://www.aasianst.org/absts/1996abst/china/c146.htm

Qing Dynasty, Two Maps

http://www.paulnoll.com/China/Dynasty/dynasty-Qing.html

http://www.hyperhistory.com/online_n2/maptext_n2/manchu.html

Qing Dynasty and the West

http://homepages.ihug.com.au/~erikaml/writings/assignments/qing.html

Tzu-Hsi: The Dowager Empress of China

http://www.kings.edu/womens_history/tzuhsi.html

Photographs of Manchu Dowager Empress Ci Xi, 1898

http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/images/cixi2.gif

http://hoover.archives.gov/exhibits/China/Political%20Evolution/1900-1931/dowagerphoto.jpg

Manchu Empress Dowager Tzu-Hsi, Emperor Hsein-feng Figurines

http://www.galleryhistoricalfigures.com/figures-pages/chinese/group-lg.html

back to top  

The Silk Road

What Is the Silk Road?

http://www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/TeacherResources/SILK%20ROAD/index.htm

The Silk Roads

http://www.aasianst.org/EAA/silkroad.htm

The History of Silk from China

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/trade/silkae.html

Silk Road Chronology

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/chrono.shtml

A Silk Road Timeline

http://www.schirmer.com/silkroad/timeline.html

Geography of the Silk Road

http://www.humboldt.edu/~geog309i/ideas/raysilk.html

Silk Road Geography, Nomads and History

http://www.silkroadproject.org/smithsonian/nomads/geography.html

Old World Traditional Trade Routes Maps

http://www.ciolek.com/owtrad.html

Silk Road Map

http://www.clevelandart.org/exhibit/silk/silkmap.html

Silk Road Maps

http://www.myschoolonline.com/page/0,1871,51508-181316-53-42888,00.html

Mongols and the Silk Road

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/lectures/wulec3.html

The Silk Road; The Making of a Global Cultural Economy

http://www.nmnh.si.edu/anthro/outreach/anthnote/anthronotes_2002winter.pdf

Silk Road Narratives: A Collection of Historical Texts

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/texts.html

Travelers on the Silk Road

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/srtravelmain.shtml

Brief Narratives of Three Expeditions in Innermost Asia and Northwestern China

http://cscs.umich.edu/~crshalizi/reviews/on-ancient-central-asian-tracks/

Photo of Mongolian Bactrian Camel Caravan Outside the Great Wall of China, 1900�s

http://camelphotos.com/GraphicsP7/camels_peking.jpg

Photo of Mongolian Bactrian Camel Train Enroute to Beijing, Passing Through Great Wall of China, 1902

http://camelphotos.com/GraphicsP7/camel_train3.jpg

Photo of Bactrian Camels in Camel Square in Beijing, 1901

http://camelphotos.com/GraphicsP7/CamelSquare3.jpg

Bactrian Camel: Camelus Bactrianus

http://www.ultimateungulate.com/Artiodactyla/Camelus_bactrianus.html

Photo of Tibetan Nomad Yak Caravan

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/YakCaravan.jpg

Tibetan Manuscripts from the Silk Road

http://idp.bl.uk/chapters/publications/newsletter_archive/news17/idpnews17.html

The Buried Silk Road Cities of Khotan

http://www.athenapub.com/9khotan1.htm

Xi�an and the Silk Road

http://hua.umf.maine.edu/China/xian.html

Geopolitics of the Silk Road

http://www.international-relations.com/wbeurasia/wblec10.htm

Religions of the Silk Road

http://www.jcu.edu/faculty/nietupski/rl251/projects/N_Silk_Road/religion/main.htm

Silk Road History and Resources

http://ess1.ps.uci.edu/~oliver/silk.html

Alexander the Great�s Campaigns in Central Asia

http://www2.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/alexandergreat.htm

The Silk Road: Trans-Ecological and Trans-Civilizational Exchanges

http://www.upf.es/materials/huma/eo/seminaris/curs0203/lectures/cristian.htm

Samarkand and the Silk Road in the Time of the Timurids and Their Heirs

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/lectures/wulec5.html

  back to top

Silk Road Art

Glimpses of the Silk Road Exhibition

http://www.metmuseum.org/special/se_event.asp?OccurrenceId=%7B75DC187D-0DCE-11D7-94D6-00902786BF44%7D

The Silk Road Virtual Art Exhibit

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/index2.html

Luxury Arts of the Silk Road

http://www.asia.si.edu/exhibitions/online/luxuryarts/2.htm

Silk Road Art of the Sogdians

http://www.weecheng.com/silk/tajik/sogdian.htm

Silk Road Art: Horses and Camels

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/trade/horcamae.html

Nomad Camp, Siyah Qalum, 15th century,

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures1/im31.jpg

Dancing Demons, Siyah Qalum, 15th century

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures1/im33.jpg

Hunters on Horseback, Siyah Qalum, 15th century

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures1/im34.jpg

Lion and Bull About to Engage in Combat, Siyah Qalum, 15th century

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures1/im38.jpg

Combat Between Two Fabulous Creatures, Siyah Qalum, 15th century

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures1/im36.jpg

Conversation Scene, Siyah Qalum, 15th century

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures1/im32.jpg

Two Daoist Immortals, Siyah Qalum, 15th century, Sarai Collection

http://www.ee.bilkent.edu.tr/~history/Pictures2/ul102.jpg

Monks and Merchants: Silk Road Treasures from Northwest China

http://www.athenapub.com/10silk.htm

Early Portrait Painting in Tibet

http://www.asianart.com/articles/portrait/

The Silver Jug of Lhasa Jokhang: Central Asian Influences on Tibetan Empire Art, 7th � 9th century

http://www.asianart.com/articles/heller/

Ural � Altaic Languages List

http://www.lib.umt.edu/guide/lang/uralth.htm#Uralt

The Ancient Gold of Kazakhstan

http://www.kz/usr/ale/eng/main.html

Photographs: In the Mountains of Central Asia

http://faculty.washington.edu/dwaugh/CA/mtntrav.htm

  back to top

Silk Road Frescoes of Dunhuang

Dunhuang, located in Gansu Province, northwestern China was one of the main destinations on the ancient Silk Road.  Dunhuang is famous today primarily for its 492 caves that house a treasure trove of frescoes, scrolls and Buddhist objects dating from the 4th century to 12th century A.D. The Dunhuang frescoes strikingly illustrate the cross-cultural confluence of aesthetics, philosophies, mythologies, and histories of India, Central Asia, and China. During the Yuan Dynasty nine new caves were created and frescoes of the Tibetan Buddhist pantheon were painted within.  

International Dunhuang Project

  http://idp.bl.uk/

Dunhuang- Buddhist Art From The Silk Road

  http://www.textile-art.com/dun1.html

Dunhuang Caves in China

  http://www.crystalinks.com/chinacaves.html

Dunhuang Art

  http://www.ignca.nic.in/ks_19.htm

Introduction to Dunhuang Cave Art  http://www.silkroadfoundation.org/dunhuang/dhintro.html

Notes On the History of Dunhuang  http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/cities/china/dh/dh.html

 

                                                   

  back to top

Historical Maps

Silk Road Maps

http://www.myschoolonline.com/page/0,1871,51508-181316-53-42888,00.html

The Kangnido, Korean World Map, 1402

http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter9/image127.html

Mid-Fifteenth Century European World Map

http://college.hmco.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter9/image128.html

Map of Roman Empire in Relation to Eurasia in Three Periods

http://www.sct.gu.edu.au/~sctwiseh/Roman/3PerspMaps.html

Alexander the Great�s Empire Map

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/macedonian_empire_336_323.jpg

Ptolmy�s Map of Asia, c.200 A.D.

http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ancient%20Web%20Pages/119J.html

Strabo�s World Map, c.18 A.D.

http://www.henry-davis.com/MAPS/Ancient%20Web%20Pages/115.html

Map Showing Sogdian, Sasanian, Harsha, and Tang Empires

 http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/sogdians/images/map.jpg

Mauryan Empire Map, ca. 323 � 185 B.C.

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/maur/hg_d_maur_d1map.htm

Kushan Empire Map, ca. 2nd � 3rd Century A.D.

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/kush/hd_kush.htm

Persian Empire Map About 500 B.C.

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd/persian_empire.jpg

Interactive Central Asia Map

http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/maps/m_centralasia.html

  back to top

Period Photos: Mongol, Siberian, Tibetan, Altai, Oirot, Central Asian Subjects

Buryat Man, Baikal Region

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/buriat/buriat10.htm

Young Buryat Woman, Atchin Council, Baikal Region,

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/buriat/buriat1.htm

Buryat Man in Ceremonial Costume

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/buriat/buriat4.htm

Buryat Men Wrestling

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/buriat/buriat5.htm

Buryat Man, Atchin Village, Baikal Region

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/buriat/buriat9.htm

Learned Buryat Woman

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/buriat/buriat21.htm

Buryat, Solon and Daur Men at Solon Oboo Festival 1931

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/verran/sights/innermongolia.html

Oirot Woman in Fur Coat, 1931

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/altay/alt46.htm

Oirot Girl, 1927

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/altay/alt20.htm

Uzbek Woman and Yurt, 1907-1915

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/empire/images/p87_6x__00006_.jpg

Kirghiz Yurt with Reed Screen, ca. 19th early 20th Century

http://www.photocentralasia.com/19thcent/19thcentphotos09.html

Young Kirghiz Women, ca. 19th early 20th Century

http://www.photocentralasia.com/19thcent/19thcentphotos18.html

Turcoman Woman, ca. 19th early 20th Century

http://www.photocentralasia.com/19thcent/19thcentphotos16.html

Tibetan Women in Ceremonial Costumes, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Chang.girls.jpg

Tibetan Nomads with Guns, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Two.nomads.jpg

Tibetan Soldier Demonstrating Mounted Shooting, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Warrior.target.jpg

Tibetan with Slings, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Slingshot.nomad.jpg

Tibetan Nomad Women, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/3Nomad.Women.jpg

Procession in Lhasa, Tibet, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Aristocrats.process.jpg

Tibetan Army Dressed in 7th � 9th Century Uniforms, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

 http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/MountedWarriors.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Tibetan.army.in.courtyard.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Warriors.archers.jpg

City of Gyantse, Tibet, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Gyantse.wall.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Gyantse.Kumbum.monastery.jpg

Tsaam Dancers in Gyantse Monastery, Tibet, Tolstoy Expedition 1943

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Cham/Cham.Wizardshat.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Cham/Cham.2maskers1.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Cham/Cham.Huizang.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Cham/Cham.yard4.jpg

River Crossing, Tibet, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Loading.barges.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Yakskin.rower.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/4men.in.a.boat.jpg

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Horses.in.barge.jpg

Tibetan Landscape with Bridges, Tolstoy Expedition 1942-43

http://www.skidmore.edu/academics/asianstudies/TibetanPhotos/Stupa.bridge.river.jpg

Siberian Shaman

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/altay/alt57.htm

Siberian Shaman, 1929

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/altay/alt58.htm

Yakut Man, Siberia

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/jakut/jak2.htm

Yakut Homes, Siberia

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/jakut/jakut7.htm

Ainu of Siberia

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/orient/ain3.htm

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/orient/ain1.htm

http://nrsm.nsc.ru:8101/sibir/abor/orient/ain2.htm

Photograph of the Emir of Bukhara, Alim Khan in 1911

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/empire/images/p87-8086.jpg

Kush-Beggi, Minister of Interior under Emir of Bukhara, c. 1905 - 1915

http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/prok/11800/11863v.jpg

Bukharan Bureaucrat, c. 1905 � 1915

http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/ppmsc/04600/04653v.jpg

Uzbek Horsemen on Hillside, Samarkand, c. 1905 - 1915

http://memory.loc.gov/pnp/ppmsc/04800/04845v.jpg

  back to top

Indian Historical Cultural Influence in Central Asia,

Gandharan, Bactrian, Sogdian, Parthian, Sarmatian Art

The Spread of Indian Art & Culture to Central Asia and China

http://ignca.nic.in/pb0013.htm

The Mauryans, 321 � 185 B.C

http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/ANCINDIA/MAURYA.HTM

Asoka, Rock and Pillar Edicts

http://www.cs.colostate.edu/~malaiya/ashoka.html

Mauryan Art and Architecture

http://www.arthistory.upenn.edu/104/maurya.html

The Kushan Empire

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/kushans/essay.html

Kushan Art Brief Summary

http://www.britannica.com/search?query=kushan&ct=

Kushan Empire Art (1st B.C. � 3/5th c. A.D.)

http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/uck/index.html

The Silk Road Art in West-Central Asia

http://www.miho.jp/booth/html/doccon/00003074e.htm

South Asia, 1 � 500 A.D.,

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/05/ssa/ht05ssa.htm

Crossroads of Civilizations, A.D. 250 - 750

http://www.unesco.org/culture/asia/html_eng/chapitre316/chapitre5.htm

The Delverzin-Tepe Pieces: Two Small Ivory Figures of Indian Origin

http://www.chez.com/cazaux/dalverzin.htm

Indian Influence in the Art of the Yungang Caves of Shanxi, China

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/religion/buddhism/monumental/yungang/yungang_essay.html

The Vasantra Jataka from Miran, Central Asia

http://www.ibiblio.org/radha/p_a012.htm

Map Showing Diffusion of Indian Languages into Asia

http://classes.bnf.fr/dossiecr/ca-inde.htm

Indus Script and Telugu

http://www.engr.mun.ca/~adluri/telugu/language/script/script1a.html

Kharosthi Alphabet

http://www.omniglot.com/writing/kharosthi.htm

The British Library Kharosthi Fragments

http://depts.washington.edu/ebmp/fragments.html

The Influence of Gandhara throughout Serindia � Gateway to China

http://www.gandhara.com.au/serindia.html

Two Aspects of Serindian Art

http://www.asianart.com/forum/serindia.html

The Gandhara School of Art

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/gandhara.shtml

The Conservation of a 5th century Buddhist Gandharan Manuscript

http://www.asianart.com/articles/batton/

Himalayan Region Art and Timeline

 http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/06/ssh/ht06ssh.htm

Paths to Enlightenment: The Ancient Art of South and Southeast Asia

http://www.accd.edu/sac/vat/arthistory/arts1303/Chapter6G.htm

Cave as Canvas: Hidden Images of Worship Along the Ancient Silk Routes

http://www.asia.si.edu/exhibitions/online/cave/default.htm

The Fasting Buddha, Gandhara

http://kaladarshan.arts.ohio-state.edu/studypages/internal/dl/SouthAsia/Buddhist/pgs/u5/DL0210l.htm

Standing Bodhisattva, Gandharan

http://acc6.its.brooklyn.cuny.edu/~phalsall/images/maitreya.gif

Hindu and Buddhist Influence in Southeast Asia

http://www.niu.edu/cseas/outreach/ArtsofSEAsiaSyllabus.pdfA

What are the Origins of Buddhist Sculpture?

http://www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/TeacherResources/SILK%20Road/html/buddsculpt.htm

A Lost Literary Buddhist Tradition is Found

http://www2.kenyon.edu/Depts/Religion/Fac/Adler/Reln260/Gandharan-ms.htm

Central Asian and Buddhist Arts

http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article?eu=385468

Buddha Amitabha Flanked by Bodhisattva Avalokitsvara

http://kaladarshan.arts.ohio-state.edu/studypages/internal/dl/SouthAsia/Buddhist/pgs/u5/DL0226m.htm

Buddhism and its Spread Along the Silk Road

http://www.silk-road.com/artl/buddhism.shtml

Demon & Deities: Masks of the Himalayas

http://www.asianart.com/articles/murray/index.html

Early Indian Objects of Art & Handicraft from Scythian and Sarmation Barrows of Russia

http://godot.unisa.edu.au/wac/paper.php?paper=957

Indian Savant�s Observations on China

http://ignca.nic.in/ks_41012.htm

Indic Ideas in the Graeco-Roman World

http://www.infinityfoundation.com/mandala/h_es/h_es_kak-s_ideas.htm

Coins of Indo-Greek Dynasties

http://www.med.unc.edu/~nupam/greek1.html

Ancient Coins of Bactria and Northwest India

http://www.snible.org/coins/hn/bactria.html

Southern Bactria and northern India before Islam

http://home.btconnect.com/CAIS/Archaeology/southern_bactria.htm

The Greco-Bactrian Mirage; Reconstructing a History of Hellenistic Bactria

http://www.sit.wisc.edu/~uwho/Archive/Archive%204%20greco%20bactrian%20mirage.pdf

Archaic Proto-Bactria and Early Ancient Bactrian Art Objects

http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ucd/

Bactria-Mergiana: Openwork Stamp Seals, late 3rd Century � early 2nd millenium B.C.

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/03/nc/ho_1984.4.htm
Bactrian Net Pattern Bowl, 100 � 1 B.C.

http://www.getty.edu/art/collections/objects/oz14966.html

Alexander in the East Map with Bactria Region

http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/map13al.htm

Alexander of Macedonia

http://www.historyofmacedonia.org/AncientMacedonia/AlexandertheGreat.html

Ancient India as Described by Flavius Arrianus, the Greco-Roman Biographer of Alexander the Great

http://www.shsu.edu/~his_ncp/Indica.html

Alexander the Great and Indian War Elephants

http://www.ancientroute.com/resource/animals/Elephant.htm

Graeco-Roman Knowledge of the Indian Elephants

http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/elephants-size.htm

Sogdiana and Soghdian Art

http://www.weecheng.com/silk/tajik/ogdians.htm

Indian Elements in the Sogdian Iconography of Xurmazd

http://www.bibliothecapersica.com/articles/v7/v7f5/v7f520.html

Images of Khorasan and Sogdian Art

http://www.kroraina.com/ca/pict/images.html

Court Art of Sogdian Samarqand in the 7th century A.D.

http://www.orientarch.uni-halle.de/ca/afras/text/wmaintxt.htm

Sogdian Influences Seen on Turkic Stone Statues, Focusing in the Fingers Representations

http://www.transoxiana.com.ar/Eran/Articles/hayashi.html

Sogdian Civilization�s Peculiarities

http://www.transoxiana.com.ar/Eran/Articles/stavisky.html

Silver Sogdian Coins

http://www.charm.ru/coins/misc/sogd-silver-unknown.shtml

The Art Journey of Marco Polo

http://www.renzofreschi.com/pages/Frame/catalogue-19.html

The Journey of Faxian to India

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/texts/faxian.html

Persian Art Under Indian & European Influence

http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/section/Persiana_LaterDevelopments.asp

Empire, Fragmentation and Salvation in Mauryan India

http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch13.htm

Parthian, Gandaharan and Bactrian Art

http://www.museeguimet.fr/gb/pages/page_id18519_u1l2.htm

Parthian Empire Art

http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ugm/

Parthian Arts and Artifacts

http://www.parthia.com/parthia_arts.htm#Artifacts

Parthian Empire Map

http://www.parthia.com/map_extent.htm

Central Asian Region of Modern day Kyrghistan�s Relationship with India 6th � 10th Century A.D.

http://www.ctaj.elcat.kg/tolstyi/c/c024.html

Western Oxus-Indus Hearthland (3rd to 2nd millennium B.C)

http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ucb/

Rock Carving and Inscriptions Along the Indus, The Buddhist Tradition

http://www.thewalt.de/reprints/saa83.htm

Painting of the Sun God Surya, in Sogdian Khaftan with Indian Influences

http://kaladarshan.arts.ohio-state.edu/loststolen/Afghan/bamiyan/small_buddha/pgs/1928CeilingMed.htm

Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts

http://www1.shore.net/~india/ejvs/ejvs0703/ejvs0703article.pdf

Dionysus and Katargama: Parallel Mystery Cults

http://kataragama.org/research/dionysus.htm

Art of Sarmatia, ( 6th  c. B.C. � 4th century A.D.)

http://www.hp.uab.edu/image_archive/ucg/index.html

On an Epithet of Scythian and Sarmatian Dieties (with Indian Terminology)

http://public.kubsu.ru/~usr02898/sl44.htm

Evidence of Sarmatian Relations with India & China

http://www.nbz.or.jp/eng/pdffiles/hallandyablonsky1998.pdf

Mongol Armies and Indian Campaigns

http://www.mongolianculture.com/MONGOL-ARMIES.htm

The Indo-Mongolian Relationship: A Retrospective Outlook on Buddhism

http://www.mongolianculture.com/ProfBira-Lect.htm

Art Objects that Embody Evidence of Indian and Central Asian Relations with Korea

http://www.marymount.k12.ny.us/marynet/TeacherResources/SILK%20Road/html/sillatrade.htm

Theories on the Scythian Invasion of India, the Yu-Chi, Bactria and Sogdia

http://www.keele.ac.uk/socs/ks45/PageHistory/Club/bracey/Kushan/digressions/scythians.htm

The Sakas Migration to India

http://depts.washington.edu/uwch/silkroad/exhibit/sakas/essay.html

Manichaen Input to Chinese Culture and Art

http://www.ibiblio.org/radha/rpub014a.htm

Ajanta Caves Image & Video Gallery

http://www.ajanta.info/flash/main.html

The Imprint of Ajanta in Tibetan Art

http://www.history.upenn.edu/coursepages/hist085/Ajanta.html

Sun Wukong, the Monkey King

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun_Wukong

From Protean Ape to Handsome Saint: The Monkey King

http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/JR-EPT/whalen.htm

The Story of the Monkey King

http://www.wku.edu/~yuanh/China/monkey.html

 

 

 

 

Compiled by the Indo-Mongolian Society of New York in 2004 

www.MongolianCulture.com